Author: MERIM ALIČIĆ
Company: JP Elektroprivreda BiH Rudnik uglja ''Kreka'' d.o.o. Tuzla
Country: Bosnia and Herzegovina
Individual boiler houses are the biggest air polluters in the winter months. As a result of the burning of coal, flue gases are emitted from the chimney, the impact of which on human health is mainly due to the content of SO2 (sulphur dioxide) in the flue gases. After the exit of flue gases from the chimney, and due to their weight (2.3 kg/m3) and binding with moisture in the air, i.e. condensation of flue gases, which are heavier than air – air (1.29 kg/m3), there is the return of flue gases to the ground – soil, sulfur dioxide and thus acidification of the soil in the area around the chimney.
Flue gases, which are somewhat lighter, will remain in the air for some time, and the presence of people in that polluted area with SO2 is a direct exposure of the human body to diseases and the possibility of cancer. Because it only takes 48 hours for the cells in the human body to start turning into acid, if you live in an acidic environment (a polluted environment with sulfur dioxide).
In 1931, the German scientist Otto Heinrich Warburg (1883-1970) received the Nobel Prize for finding the root cause of cancer. Dr. Warburg discovered that cellular acidity displaces oxygen, and a lack of oxygen in the cells creates an acidic environment. Dr. Warburg said: “Oxygen deficiency and acidity are two sides of the same coin: if one has one, one also has the other.” “If you deprive a healthy cell of 35% of its oxygen, you can turn it into a cancer cell in just two days,” claimed Dr. Warburg. “All normal cells have an absolute need for oxygen, but tumor cells can live without it. Which means that it only takes two days of being in a polluted acidic environment (contaminated with sulfur dioxide) and the cells start to turn into cancer. Excessive acidity of blood and tissues is one of the main triggers of all diseases and degenerative conditions. Human blood has a pH value between 7.3-7.4, just like sea water. If the pH of the blood falls below 7.1 or rises above 7.5, the symptoms of imbalance are immediately manifested. Death can occur quickly if the pH is not balanced.
The chemical composition of coal consists of seven chemical elements (S-sulfur, C-carbon, H-hydrogen, N-nitrogen, O-oxygen, W-moisture and A-ash). Only three chemical elements burn up with the help of oxygen O from the air (S-sulphur, C-carbon, H-hydrogen). Sulfur is yellow in color, during combustion, together with carbon and hydrogen, it participates in the release of heat, creating sulfur dioxide (SO2) and sulfur trioxide (SO3). Regardless of the fact that part of the sulfur burns, it is undesirable in the fuel because the products of its combustion have a harmful effect on the elements of the boiler plant and pollute the environment.
The plant for reducing SO2 emissions from individual combustion chambers works on the principle that during coal combustion, dry lime or limestone is gradually injected above the flame in the combustion chamber or into the chimney (flue gas zone) itself. In which chemical bonding occurs – the reaction of the limestone that is injected using a nozzle with SO2 in the flue gases, and in this way the SO2 goes into the slag instead of the flue gases. The plant is automatically regulated by means of a SO2 sensor, which measures SO2 emission at the exit from the chimney and in case of exceeding the permissible SO2 value, the compressor is switched on and injects new amounts of limestone into the flue gas zone.